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The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace).

The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.

Philippus never had much of an interest in young Octavius.

Because of this, Octavius was raised by his grandmother, Julia, the sister of Julius Caesar.

His paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War.

In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator.He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar.Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.However, though some of his contemporaries did, Historians usually refer to the new Caesar as Octavian during the time between his adoption and his assumption of the name Augustus in 27 BC in order to avoid confusing the dead dictator with his heir.A later senatorial investigation into the disappearance of the public funds took no action against Octavian, since he subsequently used that money to raise troops against the Senate's arch enemy Mark Antony.

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